The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) was established in 1945 along with the founding of the United Nations itself at the end of World War II. As one of the six principal organs of the UN, the Security Council is unique among the committees offered at NHSMUN in its membership, scope, and power. The UNSC’s history and structure have developed in a unique way because the UNSC has a unique, precautionary, and reactionary role in the UN: it is meant to respond to international crises and maintain international peace. In response to such crises, the Council can mandate decisive actions such as peace talks, mediations, negotiations, and meetings. Additionally, according to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council can approve the use of force if there is no other way to maintain international peace. The Security Council can also deploy UN peacekeeping operations and impose sanctions on states. Only the UNSC has this power.
Topic: The Situation in South Sudan
Throughout the South Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan has been enveloped by abject poverty, internal and external displacement of millions of people, and widespread human rights violations across every state. The conflict in South Sudan is a complex issue as it is driven by a weak political structure, guided by strong political rivalry, and fueled by ethnic tensions among major groups throughout the country. Although there have been multiple attempts to initiate and successfully implement peace agreements, such measures have failed to last long, and the peace process in South Sudan remains precarious. In its current state, approximately 1.6 million people remain internally displaced in South Sudan, while nearly 2.6 million people are refugees in neighboring countries. Further exacerbating internal and external displacement are the continued outbreaks of violence throughout South Sudan rooted in divisions between ethnic groups and the limited resources available for the general populace.